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Joe Carillo
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« on: November 06, 2009, 08:39:13 PM »

TOEFL PRACTICE TEST #1
Reading Comprehension


Questions 91-100 refer to the following passage:

     Eleanor Roosevelt was world-renowned, respected, and admired, and she made numerous meaningful and lasting contributions to human welfare. She earned the affection of millions throughout the world because of her humanitarian efforts on behalf of children, the oppressed, and the poor. As President Truman described her, she was the “First Lady of the World.”
     Although faced by serious setbacks, she dedicated her entire life to others. When her husband Franklin Roosevelt’s political career appeared doomed by the debilitating effects of polio, she provided him with the encouragement that made him persevere until he eventually won the presidency of the United States.
     Mrs. Roosevelt showed an abiding concern for others both in her private and public life. At a time when it was still unpopular to take such advocacies, she taught at a school she had established for poor children, managed a factory for the jobless, and ardently campaigned for equal rights.
     When she became First Lady, Mrs. Roosevelt represented with great energy and outspokenness the needs of people suffering from the Great Depression. Indeed, a good number of her ideas were incorporated into her husband’s New Deal social welfare program.
     With the outbreak of World War II, she spread out her engagements to the world stage, joining the United Nations to help establish UNICEF and come up with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. She was later appointed chairperson of the Human Rights Commission and, at the age 61, was named a delegate to the first meeting of the General Assembly of the United Nations.
     Truly a paragon of greatness, Eleanor Roosevelt once said, “You get more joy out of giving to others, and should put a good deal of thought into the happiness you are able to give.”


91.  What is the best title for the passage?
        (A) A Life Under Public Scrutiny
        (B) The Life of an American President
        (C) The First Lady of the World
        (D) The Making of a First Lady

         Answer:

92.  According to the passage, what was Eleanor Roosevelt's most important contribution?
        (A) creating a worldwide educational program for deserving students
        (B) defending the privacy of the U.S. president’s family
        (C) establishing a healthy work environment for workers
        (D) working for the general well-being of the world’s peoples

         Answer:

93.  The word persevere in line 7 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
        (A) strong
        (B) support
        (C) persist
        (D) precise

         Answer:

94.  According to the author, Franklin Roosevelt became America's 32nd president because
        (A) Eleanor Roosevelt inspired him to aim for that position
        (B) he showed great courage and intelligence as a soldier in wartime
        (C) Eleanor Roosevelt vigorously campaigned for his candidacy
        (D) he was able to overcome his depression after being afflicted with polio

         Answer:

95.  The author implies that Eleanor Roosevelt
        (A) was the first permanent delegate to the United Nations
        (B) was the best First Lady the United States ever had
        (C) was genuinely happy to be of help to people in need
        (D) was the one who formulated her husband’s New Deal program

         Answer:

96.  The term outspokenness in line 14 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
        (A) silence
        (B) shyness
        (C) aggression
        (D) frankness

         Answer:

97.  The word incorporated in line 15 is closest in meaning to
        (A) discussed
        (B) included
        (C) explained
        (D) established

         Answer:

98.  Which of the following conclusions about Eleanor Roosevelt can best be drawn from this
       passage?
        (A) She conceived the establishment of the United Nations.
        (B) She led a very private life with her president-husband.
        (C) She did a lot of humanitarian work in her lifetime.
        (D) She initially resisted her husband’s desire to go into politics.

         Answer:

99.  The word paragon in line 20 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
        (A) model
        (B) type
        (C) member
        (D) supporter

         Answer:

100.  Where in the passage does the author say Eleanor Roosevelt began to expand her civic
         involvements internationally?
        (A) lines 5-8
        (B) lines 9-11
        (C) lines 15-16
        (D) lines 19-21
         
        Answer:


Questions 101-109 refer to the following passage:

     A lunar eclipse can only take place at full moon, and only if the moon passes through a part of the shadow of Earth. This shadow consists of two cone-shaped components, one embedded inside the other. The outer shadow or penumbra is a zone where Earth prevents part, but not all, of the sun's rays from reaching the moon. On the other hand, the inner shadow or umbra is a region where Earth prevents all direct sunlight from reaching the moon.
Three basic types of lunar eclipses are recognized by astronomers: the penumbral lunar eclipse, the partial lunar eclipse, and the total lunar eclipse. In a penumbral lunar eclipse, the moon passes through Earth's penumbral shadow; this event is only of academic interest since they are subtle and somewhat difficult to observe. In a partial lunar eclipse, only a portion of the moon passes through Earth's umbral shadow; this event is easy to see, even with the unaided eye.   
In a total lunar eclipse, however, Earth prevents the sun's light from reaching the moon, and the moon as a whole passes through Earth's umbral shadow. For this reason, astronauts on the moon would be able to see the Earth eclipsing the sun. They would witness a bright red ring around Earth as they watch all the sunrises and sunsets happening simultaneously around Earth!
During the time that the moon remains completely within Earth's umbral shadow, indirect sunlight still manages to reach and illuminate it. This sunlight must first pass deep through the Earth's atmosphere, however, causing most of the blue colored light to be filtered out. Whatever light remains would be deep red or orange in color, and would be much dimmer than pure white sunlight. A small fraction of this light reaches and illuminates the moon because Earth's atmosphere also bends or refracts some of this light.
     When there is an eclipse of the moon, everyone on the night side of Earth can see the phenomenon. An estimated 35 percent of all eclipses are of the penumbral type, 30 percent are partial eclipses, and the balance of 35 percent or so are total eclipses.


101.  What is the best title for the passage?
         (A) The Movement of the Planets
         (B) The Earth and the Moon
         (C) The Events Leading to a Full Moon
         (D) The Nature of Lunar Eclipses

         Answer:

102.  The word subtle in line 8 is closest in meaning to
         (A) faint
         (B) thin
         (C) quiet
         (D) soft

         Answer:

103.  A lunar eclipse can only happen when
         (A) the sun is up
         (B) the moon is full
         (C) there's not much smog
         (D) there's a rainbow

         Answer:

104.  According to the passage, during a lunar eclipse, the moon moves through which of the
         following?
         (A) the Sun's halo
         (B) Earth's atmosphere
         (C) Earth's shadow
         (D) the Sun's shadow

         Answer:

105.  The word eclipsing in line 13 is closest in meaning to
         (A) encircling
         (B) approaching
         (C) lighting
         (D) covering

         Answer:

106.  Where in the passage does the author describe what astronauts will see during a complete
         lunar eclipse?
         (A) lines 21-23
         (B) lines 18-20
         (C) lines 15-17
         (D) lines 13-14

         Answer:

107.  The word simultaneously in line 14 could best be replaced by which of the following?
         (A) all the same
         (B) all in all
         (C) all at once
         (D) all the time

         Answer:

108.  Which of the following generalizations about lunar eclipses can best be drawn from the
         passage?
         (A) They are a stunning interplay of light and shadow.
         (B) They occur at regular intervals during the year.
         (C) They involve only Earth and the Moon.
         (D) They profoundly affect living things on Earth.

         Answer:

109.  As the lunar eclipse approaches totality, the moon appears to
         (A) become redder
         (B) shrink smaller
         (C) be fully circular
         (D) be dimly lighted

         Answer:


Questions 110-119 refer to the following passage:

     He brought an entirely new level of style and sophistication to jazz music. Although a gifted piano player, Duke Ellington used the orchestra as his principal instrument. He considered himself a composer and arranger rather than just a musician, like Jelly Roll Morton before him.
     It was in 1917 when Duke began playing music professionally in Washington, D.C. Stride piano players like James P. Johnson and Willie "The Lion" Smith influenced his piano technique. Duke led a band called The Washingtonians, which played at The Hollywood Club in Manhattan (the club was later renamed as the Kentucky Club). This band acquired a style all its own when trumpet player Bubber Miley joined it, bringing with him his unique plunger-mute style of playing. Called the "Jungle Sound," this sound came to be largely responsible for Ellington's early success. A good example of this style of playing is the song East St. Louis Toodle-Oo. In 1924, the group recorded their first album, Choo Choo (Gotta Hurry Home and Rainy Nights (Rainy Days). However, the band didn't hit the big time until after Irving Mills became their manager and publisher in 1926. In 1927, the band re-recorded versions of East St.Louis Toodle-Oo, then debuted two songs that would be associated with Duke the for rest of his career, Black and Tan Fantasy and Creole Love Call.
     Ellington's Orchestra, unlike many of its contemporaries, was able to make the transition from 1920s hot jazz of the to 1930s swing music. One song it played, It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing), even came to define the era. What kept the Ellington Orchestra a major force in jazz was this very ability to adapt and grow with the times.
     The fame and influence of Ellington continued to grow throughout the 40s and 50s. His band continued to come up with jazz standards like Take the 'A' Train, Perdido, The 'C' Jam Blues, and Satin Doll. Duke wrote several religious pieces in the 1960s. He also composed The Far East Suite, then also collaborated with a highly diverse group of jazz musicians, among them Charles Mingus and Max Roach with whom he played a trio.


110.  What is the main topic of this passage?
         (A) the life of Duke Ellington
         (B) the shift from jazz to swing music
         (C) the music of Duke Ellington
         (D) the development of jazz music

         Answer:

111.  In line 9, what does "this sound" refer to?
         (A) plunger-mute style
         (B) jazz standards
         (C) jazz fusion style
         (D) rock & roll

         Answer:

112.  "Hit the big time" in line 12 can best be replaced by which of the following?
         (A) form
         (B) known
         (C) fail
         (D) succeed

         Answer:     

113.  The word contemporaries in line 16 is closest in meaning to
         (A) artists
         (B) peers
         (C) rivals
         (D) followers

         Answer:

114.  According to the passage, Duke Ellington worked as all of the following EXCEPT as a
         (A) band leader
         (B) singer
         (C) band manager
         (D) composer

         Answer:

115.  Which musical band does the passage say did Duke Ellington help in forming?
         (A) Ellington's Orchestra
         (B) Hollywood Club
         (C) Kentucky Club
         (D) The Washingtonians

         Answer:

116.  In line 23, the word diverse means
         (A) mixed
         (B) many
         (C) few
         (D) inverted

         Answer:

117.  When did Duke Ellington compose church music?
         (A) in the 1960s
         (B) in the 1950s
         (C) in the 1940s
         (D) in the 1930s

         Answer:

118.  Which of the following statements would the author of this passage most probably agree
          with?
         (A) Duke Ellington's resistance to change caused the collapse of his musical career.
         (B) Duke Ellington did most of his jazz compositions in collaboration with others.
         (C) Duke Ellington's classical compositions are his greatest contribution to music.
         (D) Duke Ellington’s sophisticated musical style greatly influenced the jazz genre.

          Answer:

119.  All of the following statements about Duke Ellington are true EXCEPT
         (A) He was a major influence in jazz music.
         (B) He had always performed with his own band.
         (C) He trained several bands to perform his jazz music.
         (D) He composed many songs that defined a certain period.

         Answer:


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« Reply #1 on: November 06, 2009, 08:40:07 PM »

Questions 120-128 refer to the following passage:

     From what is known today, galaxies formed from huge clouds of gas in the early universe. These clouds of gas converged under self-gravity and, at some point, they started to fragment into star-cluster-sized elements from which star formation began. It is therefore expected that distant galaxies (i.e., younger galaxies) would be undergoing large amounts of star formation, producing hot stars that are sometimes called blue stars. Color evolution is the name given to the study of this phenomenon.
     Based on computer simulations, the epoch right after galaxy formation seems to be a time marked by many encounters or collisions between young galaxies. When galaxies pass near each other, they can be captured by their mutual self-gravity and merge into a new galaxy. Number evolution is the term used for this evolution of galaxies by mergers and collisions.
     Certain types of galaxies, among them the spiral and irregular galaxies, are still forming stars in the current epoch. Because there were more gas clouds in the past, however, the past was characterized by a much higher rate of star formation than the present-day average rate. Indeed, it appears that in the past, galaxies themselves were built from high initial rates of star formation.
     In space observations using the Hubble Deep Field telescope, images were produced showing  faint galaxies and distant galaxies at high red shift, confirming in quantitative terms previous estimates of the amount of star formation and how they took place.


120.  The word fragment in line 2 is closest in meaning to
         (A) flow
         (B) group
         (C) break
         (D) form

         Answer:

121.  According to the passage, a galaxy is formed
         (A) from huge amounts of cosmic dust
         (B) from huge gas cloud formations
         (C) by high atmospheric temperatures
         (D) by strong forces of gravitation

         Answer:

122.  According to the author, there were more stars forming in the past because
         (A) there were much bigger volumes of gas clouds at the time
         (B) the heat in the early universe was much more intense
         (C) the mutual gravity of the galaxies was stronger then
         (D) more galaxies were merging with one another

         Answer:

123.  According to the passage, "color evolution"
         (A) is responsible for producing billions of galaxies
         (B) is the study of the production of hot stars
         (C) only occurs when galaxies begin to collide or merge
         (D) is the changing of colors during star formation

         Answer:

124.  All of the following are true about galaxy formation EXCEPT 
         (A) It can easily be simulated by the computer.
         (B) It takes place when galaxies merge with adjoining galaxies.
         (C) It involves collisions of young galaxies.
         (D) It starts at a low rate and increases gradually.

         Answer:

125.  Which was the Hubble Deep Field telescope able to confirm?
         (A) the previous estimate of the age of the universe
         (B) the nature and rate of star formation
         (C) the distance to the farthest galaxies
         (D) the high red shift of the distant galaxies

         Answer:

126.  In line 14, initial most nearly means
         (A) potential
         (B) important
         (C) original
         (D) beginning

         Answer:

127.  The purpose of the passage is to describe
         (A) the formation of galaxies
         (B) collisions of distant stars
         (C) the effect of gas clouds on stars
         (D) the two types of galaxies

         Answer:

128.  The next paragraph that follows in this passage would most likely be about
         (A) what happens when galaxies merge
         (B) what computer simulation is able to do
         (C) how distant galaxies can be observed
         (D) the role of gravity in galaxy formation

         Answer:


Questions 129-140 refer to the following passage:

     With the inexorable growth of urban and industrial centers, governments have realized that the environment also needs to be preserved. This has given rise to a growing demand for urban and regional planners, whose rule is to promote the best use of land and resources in a particular area for residential, commercial, institutional, and recreational purposes. Among the major issues they need to address are traffic congestion, air pollution, and the impact of growth and change on a community. They usually have to come up with plans with respect to the construction of new school buildings, public housing, and other kinds of infrastructure like roads and bridges. In some cases, they get involved in such environmental issues as pollution control, wetland preservation, forest conservation, and location of new landfills. They may also be consulted in the drafting of legislation on such environmental, social, and economic issues as sheltering the homeless, constructing a new park, or providing for new correctional facilities.
     Planners need to ensure that such proposed community facilities as schools can meet the changing demands on them over the years. They must keep themselves abreast of the economic and legal issues that pertain to zoning codes, building codes, and environmental regulations. It is part of their job to ensure that builders and developers observe these codes and regulations. And they must also deal with land-use issues created by population movements. For instance, because of suburban growth and economic development, more new jobs are created outside cities, thus creating a need for more public transport vehicles to bring workers to their workplaces. Planners need to develop transportation models for this and justify them to planning boards and the public.
     The demand for urban planners has therefore greatly increased these days. In 2004, a total of 75 colleges and universities in the United States offered an accredited master’s degree program, and 16 offered an accredited bachelor’s degree program in urban or regional planning. These programs need to be accredited by the Planning Accreditation Board, which consists of representatives of the American Institute of Certified Planners, the American Planning Association, and the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning. A minimum of two years of study is required by most graduate programs in planning.


129.  The primary purpose of this passage is to
         (A) argue for the preservation of the natural surroundings
         (B) show the importance of urban planners in society
         (C) point out the failures of some university curricula
         (D) communicate the author’s preference for urbanization

          Answer:

130.  The urban planner is primarily concerned with 
         (A) maximizing use of every available space within existing cities
         (B) avoidance of legal problems when building infrastructures
         (C) finding for the client suitable places for business investment
         (D) designing structures that do least damage to the environment

          Answer:

131.  The tone of this passage can best be described as
         (A) objective
         (B) conciliatory
         (C) skeptical
         (D) apologetic

          Answer:

132.  The reference to “other kinds of infrastructure” in line 7 includes
         (A) reforestation projects
         (B) public utilities
         (C) public expressways
         (D) legal agencies

          Answer:

133.  The word proposed in line 12 most nearly means
         (A) implemented
         (B) suggested
         (C) uncovered
         (D) developed

          Answer:

134.  In the second paragraph, the description of urban planners can best be described as
         (A) argumentative
         (B) indifferent
         (C) annoying
         (D) prescriptive

          Answer:

135.  The expression keep themselves abreast of in line 13 is closest in meaning to
         (A) keep improving
         (B) run out of
         (C) stay up-to-date
         (D) go outmoded

          Answer:

136. The word suburban in line 16 most nearly means
         (A) undeveloped area
         (B) underground portion
         (C) mountainous area
         (D) city outskirts

          Answer:

137.  According to the passage, what is a consequence when the suburbs become well developed?
         (A) the standard of living in the city goes down significantly
         (B) more jobs are created outside the city proper
         (C) neighborhoods within the cities become more congested
         (D) the need for public transport decreases considerably

          Answer:

138.  We can infer from the passage that the author sees urban planners as
         (A) important
         (B) optional
         (C) expensive
         (D) impersonal

          Answer:

139.  It is most likely that the author would support which of the following?
         (A) enforcement of disregarded zoning laws and regulations
         (B) encouraging governments to hire urban planners
         (C) developing programs for the urban poor
         (D) a return to a less modern lifestyle

          Answer:

140.  The passage ends in a spirit of
         (A) bewilderment
         (B) disbelief
         (C) improvement
         (D) accusation

         Answer:

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« Last Edit: November 28, 2009, 07:28:22 PM by Joe Carillo » Logged

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