TOEFL PRACTICE TEST #1
Reading Comprehension Questions 91-100 refer to the following passage:
Eleanor Roosevelt was world-renowned, respected, and admired, and she made numerous meaningful and lasting contributions to human welfare. She earned the affection of millions throughout the world because of her humanitarian efforts on behalf of children, the oppressed, and the poor. As President Truman described her, she was the âFirst Lady of the World.â
Although faced by serious setbacks, she dedicated her entire life to others. When her husband Franklin Rooseveltâs political career appeared doomed by the debilitating effects of polio, she provided him with the encouragement that made him persevere
until he eventually won the presidency of the United States.
Mrs. Roosevelt showed an abiding concern for others both in her private and public life. At a time when it was still unpopular to take such advocacies, she taught at a school she had established for poor children, managed a factory for the jobless, and ardently campaigned for equal rights.
When she became First Lady, Mrs. Roosevelt represented with great energy and outspokenness
the needs of people suffering from the Great Depression. Indeed, a good number of her ideas were incorporated
into her husbandâs New Deal social welfare program.
With the outbreak of World War II, she spread out her engagements to the world stage, joining the United Nations to help establish UNICEF and come up with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. She was later appointed chairperson of the Human Rights Commission and, at the age 61, was named a delegate to the first meeting of the General Assembly of the United Nations.
Truly a paragon
of greatness, Eleanor Roosevelt once said, âYou get more joy out of giving to others, and should put a good deal of thought into the happiness you are able to give.â
91. What is the best title for the passage?
(A) A Life Under Public Scrutiny
(B) The Life of an American President
(C) The First Lady of the World
(D) The Making of a First Lady
92. According to the passage, what was Eleanor Roosevelt's most important contribution?
(A) creating a worldwide educational program for deserving students
(B) defending the privacy of the U.S. presidentâs family
(C) establishing a healthy work environment for workers
(D) working for the general well-being of the worldâs peoples
93. The word persevere
in line 7 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
94. According to the author, Franklin Roosevelt became America's 32nd president because
(A) Eleanor Roosevelt inspired him to aim for that position
(B) he showed great courage and intelligence as a soldier in wartime
(C) Eleanor Roosevelt vigorously campaigned for his candidacy
(D) he was able to overcome his depression after being afflicted with polio
95. The author implies that Eleanor Roosevelt
(A) was the first permanent delegate to the United Nations
(B) was the best First Lady the United States ever had
(C) was genuinely happy to be of help to people in need
(D) was the one who formulated her husbandâs New Deal program
96. The term outspokenness
in line 14 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
97. The word incorporated
in line 15 is closest in meaning to
98. Which of the following conclusions about Eleanor Roosevelt can best be drawn from this
(A) She conceived the establishment of the United Nations.
(B) She led a very private life with her president-husband.
(C) She did a lot of humanitarian work in her lifetime.
(D) She initially resisted her husbandâs desire to go into politics.
99. The word paragon
in line 20 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
100. Where in the passage does the author say Eleanor Roosevelt began to expand her civic
(A) lines 5-8
(B) lines 9-11
(C) lines 15-16
(D) lines 19-21
Answer: Questions 101-109 refer to the following passage:
A lunar eclipse can only take place at full moon, and only if the moon passes through a part of the shadow of Earth. This shadow consists of two cone-shaped components, one embedded inside the other. The outer shadow or penumbra is a zone where Earth prevents part, but not all, of the sun's rays from reaching the moon. On the other hand, the inner shadow or umbra is a region where Earth prevents all direct sunlight from reaching the moon.
Three basic types of lunar eclipses are recognized by astronomers: the penumbral lunar eclipse, the partial lunar eclipse, and the total lunar eclipse. In a penumbral lunar eclipse, the moon passes through Earth's penumbral shadow; this event is only of academic interest since they are subtle
and somewhat difficult to observe. In a partial lunar eclipse, only a portion of the moon passes through Earth's umbral shadow; this event is easy to see, even with the unaided eye.
In a total lunar eclipse, however, Earth prevents the sun's light from reaching the moon, and the moon as a whole passes through Earth's umbral shadow. For this reason, astronauts on the moon would be able to see the Earth eclipsing
the sun. They would witness a bright red ring around Earth as they watch all the sunrises and sunsets happening simultaneously
During the time that the moon remains completely within Earth's umbral shadow, indirect sunlight still manages to reach and illuminate it. This sunlight must first pass deep through the Earth's atmosphere, however, causing most of the blue colored light to be filtered out. Whatever light remains would be deep red or orange in color, and would be much dimmer than pure white sunlight. A small fraction of this light reaches and illuminates the moon because Earth's atmosphere also bends or refracts some of this light.
When there is an eclipse of the moon, everyone on the night side of Earth can see the phenomenon. An estimated 35 percent of all eclipses are of the penumbral type, 30 percent are partial eclipses, and the balance of 35 percent or so are total eclipses.
101. What is the best title for the passage?
(A) The Movement of the Planets
(B) The Earth and the Moon
(C) The Events Leading to a Full Moon
(D) The Nature of Lunar Eclipses
102. The word subtle
in line 8 is closest in meaning to
103. A lunar eclipse can only happen when
(A) the sun is up
(B) the moon is full
(C) there's not much smog
(D) there's a rainbow
104. According to the passage, during a lunar eclipse, the moon moves through which of the
(A) the Sun's halo
(B) Earth's atmosphere
(C) Earth's shadow
(D) the Sun's shadow
105. The word eclipsing
in line 13 is closest in meaning to
106. Where in the passage does the author describe what astronauts will see during a complete
(A) lines 21-23
(B) lines 18-20
(C) lines 15-17
(D) lines 13-14
107. The word simultaneously
in line 14 could best be replaced by which of the following?
(A) all the same
(B) all in all
(C) all at once
(D) all the time
108. Which of the following generalizations about lunar eclipses can best be drawn from the
(A) They are a stunning interplay of light and shadow.
(B) They occur at regular intervals during the year.
(C) They involve only Earth and the Moon.
(D) They profoundly affect living things on Earth.
109. As the lunar eclipse approaches totality, the moon appears to
(A) become redder
(B) shrink smaller
(C) be fully circular
(D) be dimly lighted
Answer: Questions 110-119 refer to the following passage:
He brought an entirely new level of style and sophistication to jazz music. Although a gifted piano player, Duke Ellington used the orchestra as his principal instrument. He considered himself a composer and arranger rather than just a musician, like Jelly Roll Morton before him.
It was in 1917 when Duke began playing music professionally in Washington, D.C. Stride piano players like James P. Johnson and Willie "The Lion" Smith influenced his piano technique. Duke led a band called The Washingtonians, which played at The Hollywood Club in Manhattan (the club was later renamed as the Kentucky Club). This band acquired a style all its own when trumpet player Bubber Miley joined it, bringing with him his unique plunger-mute style of playing. Called the "Jungle Sound," this sound
came to be largely responsible for Ellington's early success. A good example of this style of playing is the song East St. Louis Toodle-Oo. In 1924, the group recorded their first album, Choo Choo (Gotta Hurry Home and Rainy Nights (Rainy Days). However, the band didn't hit the big time
until after Irving Mills became their manager and publisher in 1926. In 1927, the band re-recorded versions of East St.Louis Toodle-Oo, then debuted two songs that would be associated with Duke the for rest of his career, Black and Tan Fantasy and Creole Love Call.
Ellington's Orchestra, unlike many of its contemporaries
, was able to make the transition from 1920s hot jazz of the to 1930s swing music. One song it played, It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing), even came to define the era. What kept the Ellington Orchestra a major force in jazz was this very ability to adapt and grow with the times.
The fame and influence of Ellington continued to grow throughout the 40s and 50s. His band continued to come up with jazz standards like Take the 'A' Train, Perdido, The 'C' Jam Blues, and Satin Doll. Duke wrote several religious pieces in the 1960s. He also composed The Far East Suite, then also collaborated with a highly diverse
group of jazz musicians, among them Charles Mingus and Max Roach with whom he played a trio.
110. What is the main topic of this passage?
(A) the life of Duke Ellington
(B) the shift from jazz to swing music
(C) the music of Duke Ellington
(D) the development of jazz music
111. In line 9, what does "this sound"
(A) plunger-mute style
(B) jazz standards
(C) jazz fusion style
(D) rock & roll
112. "Hit the big time"
in line 12 can best be replaced by which of the following?
113. The word contemporaries
in line 16 is closest in meaning to
114. According to the passage, Duke Ellington worked as all of the following EXCEPT as a
(A) band leader
(C) band manager
115. Which musical band does the passage say did Duke Ellington help in forming?
(A) Ellington's Orchestra
(B) Hollywood Club
(C) Kentucky Club
(D) The Washingtonians
116. In line 23, the word diverse
117. When did Duke Ellington compose church music?
(A) in the 1960s
(B) in the 1950s
(C) in the 1940s
(D) in the 1930s
118. Which of the following statements would the author of this passage most probably agree
(A) Duke Ellington's resistance to change caused the collapse of his musical career.
(B) Duke Ellington did most of his jazz compositions in collaboration with others.
(C) Duke Ellington's classical compositions are his greatest contribution to music.
(D) Duke Ellingtonâs sophisticated musical style greatly influenced the jazz genre.
119. All of the following statements about Duke Ellington are true EXCEPT
(A) He was a major influence in jazz music.
(B) He had always performed with his own band.
(C) He trained several bands to perform his jazz music.
(D) He composed many songs that defined a certain period.